当前位置:首页> 重要讲话

中国代表团团长、商务部副部长兼国际贸易谈判副代表王受文在世贸组织对中国第七次贸易政策审议首日会议发言

文章来源:
文章类型: 内容分类:


2018年7月11日,日内瓦

主席先生、讨论引导人,

各位大使、各位代表:

很高兴再次来到日内瓦,出席世贸组织对中国第七次贸易政策审议会议。

首先,感谢Eloi Laourou 大使和秘书处的同事们为准备此次审议所付出的努力,感谢DidierChambovey大使担任此次审议引导人,感谢大家的参与以及对中国的关注。

中国政府高度重视这次审议。今天,和我一同出席会议的有来自国内14个部门的30位同事,以及中国常驻世贸组织代表团张向晨大使和他的同事。

截至目前,共有42个成员向中国提出了1963个书面问题。昨天下午,我们已全部完成33个成员在6月28日前提交的1627个问题的答复。对于成员在6月28日后提交的问题,我们将按规则在会后一个月内完成答复。

主席先生、各位大使、各位代表,

今年是中国改革开放40周年。在改革开放进程中,中国加入世贸组织毫无疑问是具有里程碑意义的事件。前不久,中国政府刚刚发布了《中国与世贸组织》白皮书,全面系统介绍了中国加入世贸组织17年来履行承诺的实践,系统阐明了中国进一步推进更高水平开放的政策主张。今天,我们把白皮书带到了会场,希望对大家更好地了解中国、认知中国有所帮助。

改革开放特别是加入世贸组织以来,中国与世界都发生了很多变化,但有一点始终没有改变,那就是中国始终坚持开放合作的理念,努力与各国实现互利共赢。中国在全球化中实现自身发展的同时,也为世界经济增长带来了重要机遇,给贸易投资伙伴带来了实实在在的利益。

中国为各国产品和服务提供了广阔的市场。货物贸易领域,从2001年加入世贸组织至2017年,中国货物贸易进口额年均增长13.5%,是全球平均水平的2倍。2017年,中国占全球货物贸易进口总额比重为12.8%。服务贸易领域,2001至2017年,中国服务贸易进口年均增长16.7%,是世界平均水平的2.7倍。2017年,中国占全球服务贸易进口总额的比重接近10%,服务贸易逆差2395亿美元。

外资企业获得了前所未有的发展机会。2017年,在华外资企业在中国进出口总额中所占的比重为44.8%。其销售收入2016年超过5万亿美元,与2001年相比,年均增长15.8%。

以在华美资企业为例,2001年时,美资企业在中国市场销售额只有450亿美元;到2016年,其中国市场销售额达到了6000亿美元。

中国欧盟商会最新的调查也显示,2017年欧洲企业在华经营状况持续改善,66%的受访企业收入超过了2016年,93%的欧洲企业收入实现增长。

越来越多的中国企业“走出去”,与各国谋求合作共赢。今年是习近平主席提出“一带一路”倡议五周年。五年来,中国政府秉持“共商共建共享”原则,积极推动“一带一路”建设与各国发展战略对接。截至2017年底,中国企业已在有关国家建设75个境外经贸合作区,上缴东道国税费超过16亿美元,为当地创造22万个就业岗位。

主席先生、各位代表,

上次审议以来,中国政府又采取了一系列贸易投资自由化便利化举措。

我们连续大幅自主降低进口关税税率。截至2017年底,我们调减了900多个税目产品的税率,贸易加权平均关税已降至2.4%。2018年4月习近平主席博鳌论坛讲话后,我们又在2018年5月和7月进一步下调了1695个税目产品的进口关税。其中,汽车整车最惠国税率从25%和20%降至15%,汽车零部件最惠国税率从最高25%降至6%。

我们将在今年11月举办首届中国国际进口博览会。这是一个由中国发起、100多个国家共同参与的进口平台。我愿借此机会重申对世贸组织成员的邀请,热烈欢迎大家来华参加。

我们持续不断扩大外商投资市场准入。6月28日,也就是几天前,我们刚刚发布了2018年版外商投资准入负面清单,外商投资限制措施由原来的63条减少到48条。

在金融领域,银行业已经允许外资100%持股中资银行;证券公司、基金管理公司、期货公司、寿险公司的外资股比放宽到了51%;到2021年,金融领域将允许外资100%持股,完全对外资开放。

在制造业领域,我们取消了船舶、飞机行业的外资股比限制。汽车行业已经取消了专用车、新能源汽车外资股比限制,商用车外资股比限制将在2020年取消,2022年将取消乘用车外资股比限制。

我们务实推动《贸易便利化协定》实施。目前,中国海关进口货物平均通关时间缩短至20小时以内,出口货物平均通关时间不到2小时。国际贸易“单一窗口”标准版已实现全国所有口岸全覆盖。履行协定义务方面,A类措施所占比重已达到94.5%,4项保留的B类措施,我们也将在3年过渡期后如期实施。

我们还加快了自由贸易试验区建设步伐。2017年3月,我们新设了辽宁、浙江等7个自贸试验区。2018年4月,又宣布支持海南全岛建设自贸试验区并逐步探索建立自由贸易港。2018年6月30日,我们发布了专门适用于自由贸易试验区的新版外商投资准入负面清单。与我刚才提到的在全国适用的负面清单相比,这个清单开放的领域更宽、更广。

主席先生、各位代表,

上次审议以来,中国在加快对外开放步伐的同时,继续全面深化改革。

我们废止了营业税,全面实施营业税改征增值税,简化增值税税率结构并降低了增值税税率。我们加快推进供给侧结构性改革,2016年和2017年共化解粗钢产能超过1.2亿吨,化解煤炭过剩产能超过5亿吨。

在简化政府行政审批方面,我们将外商投资负面清单以外的外商投资企业的设立由审批改为备案管理。目前,96%以上的外商投资企业设立以备案方式完成。

在知识产权保护领域,我们已经修订了《商标法》《反不正当竞争法》,正在修订《著作权法》和《专利法》,以进一步提高保护水平。我们还大力推进知识产权审判领域改革。2017年,在7个省市设立了10个跨区域的知识产权专门审判机构,并开展了外商投资企业知识产权保护行动。

可以说,我们对知识产权的保护给知识产权所有人带来了巨大的利益。2001年中国加入世贸组织时,中国对外支付的知识产权使用费只有19亿美元,2017年已达到286亿美元。中国美国商会2018年白皮书显示,在美国在华投资企业最为挑战的问题中,知识产权仅排在第12 位,已经不是他们在华经营中遇到的主要困难。

主席先生、各位代表,

中国是多边贸易体制的坚定支持者。中国积极参与世贸组织各项工作,认真履行成员义务,努力确保国内相关立法和政策与世贸组织规则相一致。

在透明度方面,中国有关立法已明确要求法律、行政法规和规章草案需要公开征求公众意见。政府公报体系也不断完善。自2014年6月建立贸易政策合规工作机制以来,我们已对 1700多件可能与贸易有关的政策进行了合规性评估。

在通报义务履行方面,我向大家通报,我们经过过去一年多时间的艰苦努力,终于在审议会议前完成了2015—2016年中央和地方补贴政策通报的提交工作,达到了补贴和反补贴措施委员会的要求。而且,地方补贴政策通报首次实现了省级行政区域全覆盖。

在争端解决方面,我们积极参与改进争端解决程序的谈判,支持专家组和上诉机构独立公开审理案件,努力推动尽快启动新上诉机构成员遴选程序。截至2018年4月,中国在世贸组织起诉案件17起,被诉案件41起。对每起被诉案件,中国尊重并认真执行裁决,作出了符合世贸规则的调整,无一例被起诉方申请报复的情况。

当前,多边贸易体制面临严峻挑战。我们呼吁世贸组织成员坚定捍卫最惠国待遇、国民待遇、发展中国家特殊和差别待遇等多边贸易体制的基本原则和核心价值,坚决反对贸易霸凌主义、保护主义和单边主义。我们强烈呼吁解决上诉机构成员补选所面临的僵局,解决232、301等单边主义行为对世贸组织的系统性威胁。

我们都同意,世贸组织不是完美无缺的,需要与时俱进。我们建议在坚持上述原则的基础上来更新世贸组织的一些规则和内容,并体现绝大多数成员的关切。

主席先生、各位代表,

作为最大的发展中国家,中国一直向其他发展中成员提供支持,也愿意承担与自身发展水平和能力相称的国际责任。截至2017年底,我们已对36个最不发达国家实施了97%税目产品零关税,在促贸援助倡议下累计向“中国项目”捐款320万美元,向世贸组织“贸易便利化协定基金”捐款100万美元。最不发达国家加入世贸组织圆桌会2017年两次召开,一次在柬埔寨,一次在阿根廷。今年,哈萨克斯坦又将举办。我们愿和成员一道,为更多国家和地区加入世贸组织大家庭而努力

主席先生、各位代表,

在改革开放40周年之际,中国愿意重申,将坚定不移贯彻新发展理念,全面深化改革,以更广范围、更大力度、更高水平的对外开放,与各国构建利益高度融合、彼此相互依存的命运共同体,促进共同发展。

中国将继续坚定支持多边贸易体制,与成员一起,共同承担时代责任,共同应对经济全球化进程中出现的问题,让不同经济体、不同阶层、不同人群共享经济全球化带来的机遇和好处。

我的发言就到这里。下面,我愿意倾听讨论引导人和其他成员的评论。谢谢。

Statement by H.E. Mr. Wang Shouwen

Head of theChinese Delegation

Vice Ministerof Commerce of China and

Deputy China International TradeRepresentative

at the FirstSession of the Seventh WTO TPR of China

Geneva, 11July 2018

Honorable Chair Ambassador Eloi Laourou,

Honorable Discussant Ambassador Didier Chambovey,

Ambassadors,

Delegates,

Good morning. I was here exactly 2 years ago. I am happy tobe back for the Seventh WTO Trade Policy Review of China.

Let me begin by expressing my appreciation to Mr. Chair and the WTO’s TPR team for your tremendous efforts for this review. My thanks also go to Ambassador Chambovey for assuming the role of discussant. Fairly impressedby the turnout of today’s meeting, I want to thank you all for coming and for your interest in China’s trade policies.

The government of China attaches great importance to this review. Joining me today are 30 colleagues from 14 government agencies of China, as well as our Ambassador Zhang Xiangchen and colleagues at the Mission here in Geneva.

In the past few weeks, my team has been working around the clock. So far, we have received 1,963 written questions from 42 Members. By yesterday, we had answered all 1,627 questions submitted by 33 Members two weeksprior to this meeting. And we are working hard on the remaining questions submitted after June 28th. We will provide responses in one month fromnow according to the rule.

Mr. Chairman, Ambassadors, Delegates,

This year marks the 40th anniversary of China’s reform and opening-up. In this process, China’s accession to the WTO was no doubt a historic milestone. Two weeks ago, the government of China published a white paper on China and the World Trade Organization. The paper gives a comprehensive account of China’s fulfillment of its WTO commitments during its 17 years’ membership. It also expounds China’s policies and propositions in advancing higher-level reform and opening-up. Hard copies of the white paper are available in this room. I hope it could help you with a better understanding of China and its efforts.

Since the reform and opening-up of China, especially since China’s accession to the WTO, significant changes have taken place both inChina and the rest of the world. However, one thing remains unchanged, that is China’s consistent pursuit of opening up for cooperation and mutual benefitwith all countries. While developingitself in economic globalization, China has created important opportunities forthe world economic growth, and delivered tangible benefits to its trading andinvestment partners.

Firstly, China has provided tremendous marketopportunities for goods and services for the rest of the world. From 2001 when China joined the WTO to 2017, China’s imports of goods increased at an annual average growth rate of 13.5%. That is twice as high as the world average. Last year, China’s imports of goods took up 12.8% of the global total. Between 2001 and 2017, China’s imports of services registered a yearly average growth of 16.7%, 2.7 times as much as the world average. Last year, China’s imports in services accounted for close to 10% of the globaltotal, with a trade deficit in services close to USD 240 billion.

Secondly, foreign-invested enterprises(FIEs) in China have gained unprecedented opportunities of development. Last year, FIEs contributed to 44.8% of China’s total foreign trade in goods. Their total sales revenue exceeded USD 5 trillion in 2016, representing an annual average of 15.8% since 2001.

Take the US-invested enterprises in China as an example. Their sales revenue in China reached USD 600 billion in 2016 compared with only USD 45 billion in 2001.

The latest survey by the European Chamber of Commerce in China also indicated that business operations of European companies in China havecontinued improving in 2017. About 66% of the respondents reported higher revenue than 2016. And 93% of respondents achieved growth in earnings.

Thirdly, more and more Chinese companies have gone global for win-win cooperation with their counterparts worldwide. This year marks the fifth anniversary of the Belt and Road Initiative proposed by President Xi Jinping. In the past 5 years, the government of China has vigorously promoted the Belt and Road Initiative and its alignment with the development strategies of various countries, based on the principle of achieving shared growth through joint consultation and collaboration. By the end of last year, Chinese companies had established 75 overseas economic andtrade cooperation zones in relevant countries, and these companies had paid over USD 1.6 billion worth of taxes to the host countries and created 220,000 jobs for the local economies.

Mr. Chairman, Delegates,

During the period under this review, the government of China has taken a series of measures for trade and investment liberalization and facilitation. Let me approach these areas from 5 perspectives.

We have significantly lowered import tariffs voluntarily and continuously. By the end of 2017, import duties on over 900 tariff lines had been reduced, with the trade-weighted average tariff rate falling to 2.4%. That is a very low level even compared with developed economies. President Xi Jinping delivered an important speech at the Boao Forum for Asia in April this year. Following that, we further cut tariffs of about 1700 tariff lines in May and July. For example, the MFN rate on motor vehicles was reduced from 25% to15%, and that on auto parts from 25% to 6%.

China will be holding the first China International Import Expo in Shanghai in November this year. This Expo is already oversubscribed by more than 100 countries. I would like to take this opportunity to renew our invitations to fellow Members, and warmly welcome you all to China to attend the Expo.

We have constantly expanded market access for foreign investors. On June 28th,, just a few days ago, China published the 2018 Special Administrative Measures for the Access of Foreign Investment (the Negative List), reducing the number of restrictive measures on foreign investment from 63 to 48.

Today, foreign financial institutions can invest in Chinese banks for 100% ownership. Foreign equity caps on securities, fund management, futures and life insurance companies have been raised to 51%. By 2021, the financial sector will be thoroughly open, allowing 100% of foreign equity ownership.

Foreign equities cap on shipbuilding and aircrafts, as wellas special vehicles and new energy vehicles have been also removed. Those on commercial vehicles and passenger cars will be lifted by 2020 and 2022 respectively.

China has pragmatically implemented the Trade Facilitation Agreement (TFA). The average time of customs clearance has been reduced toless than 20 hours for imports, and to less than 2 hours for exports. A standard version of international trade single window has been applied to all portsnationwide. Talking about honoring the Agreement obligations, Category Ameasures have taken up 94.5% of China’s commitments, and the only 4 measures under Category B will be implemented at the expiration of the 3-year transition period as scheduled.

China has also accelerated the construction of pilot free trade zones (PFTZs). In March 2017, seven new PFTZs were established in Liaoning, Zhejiang and other provinces. In April this year, the government of China announced to support Hainan province in building a whole-island PFTZ, and in gradually exploring the development of a free trade port. On June 30th, the latest version of PFTZ negative list for foreign investment was released. It covers broader areas for opening up than the negative list for the nationwide application that I referred to earlier on.

Mr. Chairman, Delegates,

During the period under this review, China has comprehensively deepened reform while opening further to the outside world.

We have annulled the business tax and replaced it with value-added tax (VAT), lowered the VAT rates and simplified its structure. We have advancedthe supply-side structural reform, and resolved over 120 million metric tons ofcrude steel and over 500 million metric tons of coal capacity in 2016 and 2017combined.

With regard to streamliningadministrative approval, the establishment of FIEs in sectors outside the Foreign Investment Negative List issubject to record filing rather than examination and approval. So far, over 96% of the establishment of FIEs is completed through record-filing.

With regard to IPR protection, Trademark law and Anti-unfair Competition Law have beenrevised, and Copyright Law and Patent Law are under amendment to enhance the level of IPR protection. Besides, reform ontrial of IPR cases has been stepped up. We set up 10 trans-regional IPR courts in 7 provinces and a dedicated IPR protection campaign was launched for FIEs last year.

It is fair to say that IPR protection in China has tremendously benefited IPR holders. The royalties Chinapaid to foreign right holders surged from merely USD 1.9 billion in 2001 to USD 28.6 billion last year. The 2018 White Paper by American Chamber of Commerce in China shows that among the biggest challenges facing the US-invested enterprises in China, IPR ranked only the 12th place. It is no longer a major problem in their business operation in China.

Mr.Chairman, Delegates,

China has been a firm supporter of the Multilateral Trading System (MTS). China has actively participated in all aspects of theWTO work, faithfully implemented its obligations, and striven to ensure the compliance of its domestic laws and policies with the WTO rules.

As for transparency, China’s relevant legislations explicitly provide that draft laws, administrative regulations and rules shall be made available for publiccomments. The system of government gazettes has also been constantly improved. Since the creation of trade policy compliance mechanism in June 2014, over 1,700 trade related policies have been reviewed for compliance.

As for notification, I would like to inform you that as a result of hard efforts over the past one and a half years, China had completed and submitted the subsidy notifications at central and sub-central government levels for 2015 to 2016before this TPR meeting, satisfying the requirement of Agreement on Subsidies and Countervailing Measures (ASCM). For the first time, policies in allprovincial-level administrative regions were reflected in the sub-central subsidynotifications.

As for dispute settlement (DS), we have taken an active part in the negotiations on improving the DS procedures, and supported the independence and impartiality of the panel and the Appellate Body (AB). We have also urged for an early launch of the selection process of AB members. By April 2018, China has brought 17 disputes to the WTO and China has complained against in 41 cases. As the respondent, China respected the WTO rulings, and made adjustments to its measures according to WTO rules. Up to now, none of the complainants has requested for retaliation against China.

The multilateral trading system is now confronted with severe challenges. We would like to call on all WTO Members to resolutely defend the fundamental principles and core values of the MTS including MFN, National Treatment and S&D treatment for developing members, and to firmly stand up to trade bully, protectionism andunilateralism. We strongly appeal to break the impasse for the AB member selection process, and to tackle the systematic threats posed by such unilateralism actionsas Section 232 and 301 investigations to the WTO.

We all agree that the WTO is not perfect and WTO needs tokeep pace with the times. We suggest updating some of the WTO rules based on the above principles, while accommodating the concerns of the overwhelming majority of members.

Mr. Chairman, Delegates,

As the largest developing country,China has been providing support to other developing Members, and is ready to assumethe international responsibilities commensurate with its level of development and capacities. By the end of last year, China had accorded zero tariff treatment on 97% of all tariff lines to 36 LDCs that have diplomatic ties with China.

In response to the Aid for Trade Initiative, China has donated USD3.2 million to the China Program since 2011, and contributed USD1 million tothe WTO Trade Facilitation Agreement Fund. Roundtables on LDCs’ accession tothe WTO were successfully held in Cambodia and Argentina last year. This year, the Roundtable will be held in Kazakhstan. We stand ready to work with all members in assisting more countries and regions to join the big family of the WTO.

Mr. Chairman, Delegates,

On the occasion of the 40th anniversary of reformand opening-up, China will pursue with firmness the vision of innovative, coordinated, green and open development for all. China commits itself to deepening reform on all fronts and opening up wider and deeper to promote common development across the world. Working together with other countries, China is committed to building a community of shared future with extensive converginginterests and a high degree of interdependence.

China will continue to support and safeguard the multilateral trading system. Joining hands with other Members, we will assume the responsibilities of our times, address problems emerging in the economic globalization, and enable various economies, social strata and groups of peopleto share the opportunities and benefits of economic globalization.

With that I conclude my statement. And the whole of the Chinese delegation would be all ears to the comments and questions from thediscussant and all the members.

Thank you very much.


商务部网站版权与免责声明:

1、凡本站及其子站注明“文章类型:原创”的所有作品,其版权属于商务部网站及其子站所有。其他媒体、网站或个人转载使用时必须注明:“文章来源:商务部网站”。

2、凡本站及其子站注明“文章类型:转载”、“文章类型:编译”、“文章类型:摘编”的所有作品,均转载、编译或摘编自其它媒体,转载、编译或摘编的目的在于传递更多信息,并不代表本站及其子站赞同其观点和对其真实性负责。其他媒体、网站或个人转载使用时必须保留本站注明的文章来源,并自负法律责任。